Advertisements
Home

A Marginal Sociologist’s Musical Perspective on Humanism Vs. Rationalism: The Sad State of American Education That Has Failed To Separate The Two

Leave a comment

As a mobile marginal sociologist who likes to engage in conversation with anyone willing, I have more than a few adventures. As one great Sociology Professor at my university once told me, “to be a good sociologist you have to actually like people”. I take this advice to heart inside—and outside—of the classroom, and the last few days were no exception. In a few conversations with individuals involved in higher education in the United States I learned that higher education is not really education at all. Rather, it is a form of indoctrination. After all, how can an individual with a Master’s Degree not know who Nietzsche is? And how can someone receiving a liberal arts degree not know the distinction between humanism and rationalism? It is not because these people are dumb; quite contrary, they are intelligent people who are seeking to learn about a world that the educational system has—unfortunately—left behind. One reason may be that the educational system—in following the modern trend of rationalization that Sociologist Max Weber warned against—has failed to separate rationalism from humanism.

Since humans are not rational, humanism is not compatible with rationalism. The famous Turkish rock group MFÖ makes this point clear in the popular song “Ali Desidero”. While the video is an amusing throwback to mid-nineties Turkish pop, the lyrics are certainly prescient in that they show the odd form of confusion that defines the thoughts of the modern generation.

In the song the young man falls in love with a young lady in his neighborhood. The only issue is that the young man and the young lady come from different worlds: the young man is a self professed “simple man” hanging out at the coffee house watching football, while the young lady is a bit of an intellectual. Since the lyrics are clever (pointing out that the young man thinks Machiavelli is a footballer), they also point out the contradictions in the young lady’s intellectual thought:

Elbetteki feminist bir kız
Metafiziğe de inanmakta

Bir kusuru var yalnız kızın
Biraz entel takılmakta
Optimizt hem de pesimist biraz
idealizme de savunmakta
Ali Desidero Ali Desidero

Teoride desen zehir gibi
Pratik dersen sallanmakta
Bazen ben hümanistim diyor
Bazen rastyonalist oluyor
Değişik bir psikoloji
Bir felsefe idiotloji
İdiot idiot idiotloji

(Turkish Lyrics Courtesy Of: http://sarkisozuceviri.com/mfo-ali-desidero-sarki-sozleri/ )

 

Of course the girl is a feminist

She also believes in metaphysics

There is just one flaw with the girl

Shes a bit of an intellectual

She is an optimist, sometimes a pessimist

And defends idealism
Ali Desidero Ali Desidero

In terms of theory she’s got it down

In terms of the practical she’s a little shaky

Sometimes she says “I’m a humanist”

Other times she becomes a rationalist

It’s a different type of psychology

A philosophy, idiotology

Idiot idiot idiotology

(Author’s Translation. An alternative translation—which I did not enjoy—is available at http://lyricstranslate.com/en/ali-desidero-ali-desidero.html )

 

The kind of confusion that MFÖ sing about is not inherent to Turkish culture, it is a confusion that plagues much of the West (and yes, Turkey is part of the West in terms of its acceptance of globalized culture).  In the United States—and, arguably, most of the West—the education system is skewed to the political “Left”. Thus, it pushes a “humanist” idea while simultaneously pushing rationalization; it is characterized by a social science dominated by numbers. Sociologist C. Wright Mills was the first to point out the flaws of this kind of thought system in his famous work The Sociological Imagination by focusing on the academic field of Sociology:

…[S]ociology has lost its reforming push, its tendencies toward fragmentary problems and scattered causation have been conservatively turned to the use of corporation, army, and state . . . To make the worker happy, efficient, and co-operative we need only make the managers intelligent, rational, knowledgable (Mills, 1959: 92).

Here, Mills points out that socioligists began to serve the goals of the wider power elite in society—the corporations, the army, and the government—by pushing “rationalism”.  This has meant that:

[T]he human relations experts have extended the general tendency for modern society to be rationalized in an intelligent way and in the service of a managerial elite. The new practicality leads to new images of social science—and of social scientists. New institutions have arisen in which this illiberal practicality is installed: industrial relations centers, research bureaus of universities, new research branches of Corporation, air force and government. They are not concerned with the battered human beings living at the bottom of society—the bad boy, the loose woman, the migrant worker, the un-Americanized immigrant. On the contrary, they are connected, in fact and in fantasy, with the top levels of society. (Mills, 1959: 95).

From this quote we see that the “rationalization” of society has come at the expense of what Mills calls “the battered human beings living at the bottom of society”; this is—quite clearly—far from humanist.  In fact, to Mills, the political philosphy of those subscribing to this mode of thought is “contained in the simple view that if only The Methods of Science, by which man now has come to control the atom, were employed to ‘control social behavior,’ the problems of mankind would soon be solved, and peace and plenty assured for all” (Mills, 1959: 113). The problem with the mode of thought that Mills criticizes is, of course, the fact that human beings are not atoms. Since human beings have a minds of their own, no type of scientific rationalization can control them; to do so would mean to treat all human beings as if they were all uniform (like the aforementioned atom). This negates the diversity of humanity, and understanding this simple fact means understanding humanism; it also means that humanism is not compatible with—nor analogous with—rationalism.

A recent news story shows the problems with confusing humanism and rationalism. On 4 July 2017 The Canadian government agreed to pay a Canadian national—who admitted to killing a U.S. soldier in Afghanistan—the whopping sum of 10 million US dollars. According to a CBC editorial, Omar Khadr deserved this payday—despite being a murderer and a terrorist—because he was mistreated as a Candian citizen. According to Amnesty International, Mr. Khadr’s “rights were violated” (despite the fact that he admitted to killing another human being). Although those who approve of the Candian government’s settlement may see the decision as a rational, one (since Mr. Khadr’s human rights were violated) as well as a humanist one (since he was a child soldier at the time of the murder), they miss the absurdity of a terrorist being paid over ten (10!) million dollars after killing someone. This is not rational, nor is it humanist (especially if we take into account the feelings of the family members of the man Mr. Khadr killed!), and that is why this one case serves as a perfect example of the risks inherent in conflating humanism with rationalism.

To continue with the musical theme, I will offer another small example from American country music. While writing I was listening to Luke Combs’ “When It Rains It Pours” on Youtube and—like any good sociologist—I perused the comments section. In it, I came across a gem where a user asks “Is it wrong If [sic] I like this kind of music and am black?”. Of course, fellow Youtube users responded in the right way: You can like any kind of music regardless of your skin color! Thats the point of a free—and humanistic—society. However, one reason this type of comment may have been posted, is that the rationalists (due to their obsession with the classifcation of human beings) like to believe that  “rap music is for black people” and “country music is for white people”. This is, of course, absurd, yet (sadly) there are many sociology articles out there that deride country music as being “white” music and for not being “inclusive” enough.

 

Screen Shot 2017-07-18 at 11.43.52 PM.png

 

Without digging into the academic works, this blog will serve as a useful example of this type of misinformed thought. The author complains that African-American country artist Darius Rucker’s songs“contain the same themes of family, whiskey drinking, heartbreak, and Southern culture (such as the food, chivalry, clothes) and the same avoidance of touchy subjects as those of any white artist”. That Mr. Rucker is not fitting into his racial stereotype—by avoiding racial topics in his songs—is apparently offensive to the blog’s author. It is just one more sad example of the toxicity of rationalization at work, since the blogger assumes that a black singer needs to sing about “black” topics to fit into his “category” as a black country music artist. With all due respect to the sociologists, I prefer a humanistic approach—not confused with rationaliztion—which allows singers to sing about whatever they please, regardless of their race. And yes, us listeners can listen to whtatever we like, regardless of our race as well. Such is the beauty of a humanist perspective; it is a perspective that unifies unlike the divisive perspectives of rationalism.

Advertisements

From Baltimore to Belgrade (and Back)

10 Comments

Baltimore and Belgrade. They couldn’t be farther apart. Perhaps the only thing that brings them together is the fact that both city’s names begin with the letter “B” and end with the letter “E”. Yet despite their differences, the two have been brought together, at least for the purposes of this post, due to . . .rioting. As many may know Baltimore was affected by two days of violent rioting following the death of Freddie Gray which gave way to calm on the night of Tuesday, April 28—no doubt due in most part to the presence of 2,000 National Guard troops and 1,000 additional police officers enforcing a 10:00pm-5:00am (22:00-05:00) curfew. It may seem harsh, but the widespread riots—shown on the map below—left authorities no choice.

150428175332-baltimore-riot-map-exlarge-169

 

Image Courtesy Of: http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/28/us/baltimore-riots/

longform-original-21691-1430231117-22 longform-original-1352-1430213417-19 longform-original-954-1430213233-25

Images Courtesy Of: http://www.buzzfeed.com/lynzybilling/here-are-the-most-powerful-photos-from-the-baltimore-riots#.sjbzL58DO

Sports, like many representations of “normal” life were not unaffected. Due to the curfew baseball’s Baltimore Orioles announced via Twitter that their Tuesday, April 28 game against the Chicago White Sox at Camden Yards Stadium would be postponed and that Wednesday’s game would be played behind closed doors. While football fans may be used to games being closed to the public and played without fans, U.S. baseball fans are certainly not. This kind of thing is unprecedented in U.S. sports, but will most certainly happen in Belgrade next weekend. Now, lets look at Belgrade for a moment before returning to Baltimore.

CDszdrUUUAAEfIP

The Baltimore Orioles’ Announcement. Image Courtesy of: https://twitter.com/orioles/status/593124360963031040

 

On Saturday April 25 the “Eternal Derby” in Serbia between Belgrade rivals Partizan Belgrade and Red Star Belgrade lived up to its billing as one of the world’s most dangerous derbys—at least 50 people were injured and there were 40 arrests in the chaos. Graphic pictures and videos of the riot show supporters launching flares and hurling seats at police while many are left bloodied and stunned in the stands. One could look for a political motive in all of this; after all, many derbies in European football are characterized by deep-seated animosities between fan bases stemming from, among other things, ethnic differences, class differences, and political differences. In this case, however, there is not much of that.

2800294700000578-0-image-a-36_1430000348384 2800280100000578-0-image-a-38_1430000355920 280022FD00000578-0-image-a-42_1430000379358 27FFFA2800000578-3055654-image-a-65_1430002659475 2800138000000578-3055654-image-a-57_1430002489410 27FFFFB400000578-0-image-a-47_1430000399985

Images Courtesy Of: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/football/article-3055654/Violent-scenes-derby-Red-Star-Belgrade-Partizan-Belgrade-delays-game-leaves-35-police-officers-injured.html#ixzz3YQqGcIgA

 

Red Star Belgrade were formed by members of the Serbian United Antifascist Youth League during World War Two. Although they inherited the stadium, offices, players, and colors of a team—SK Jugoslavija (disbanded after being labelled collaborators by communist leader Josip Broz Tito for playing matches in German occupied Serbia during the war)—the continuity between clubs is disputed.

Their rivals, Partizan Belgrade (whose stadium I learned upon visiting the city is just 1 kilometer away from Red Star’s, were founded as the club of the Yugoslav army and were initially managed by officers in the Yugoslav People’s Army. Indeed, the club was named in honor of the Yugoslav Partisans who fought against the communists in World War Two. The club’s initial crest even sported a five pointed red star as a symbol of communism—not too different from Red Star Belgrade’s emblem that features…a five pointed red star with a background of red, white, and blue, the national colors of Serbia.

135px-Grb_FK_Partizan_(1945_-_1947) 120px-FC_Red_Star_Belgrade_Logo_(Old).svg

Images Courtesy Of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FK_Partizan#Crest_and_colours AND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Star_Belgrade#Crest_and_colors Respectively

The animosity stems mainly from the fact that both teams are the most supported in Serbia and are located in close proximity to one another in the capital city. It is bragging rights that are on the line, and one is born with an identity that is characterized by the support of one of the teams. In some ways, it is a feeling of a familial bond that connects the team to its supporters. In a Wall Street Journal article one Red Star fan was quoted describing the love he has for his team: “It’s the kind of love one feels for a country or a woman or a child.” On the flip side a fan of Partizan Belgrade was also quoted, explaining that he married a Red Star fan only on condition that they raise their children Partizan fans: “It was one of the things I insisted on when we got married. I said I could cope with anything except them being Red Star fans.” This sentiment isn’t too hard to understand. I encountered it while talking with fans at derbys in Stockholm and Thessaloniki and I have heard the almost romantic love football fans sing with while supporting their teams in Turkey. My own childhood friend in Turkey—herself a Besiktas fan—had to accept her husband’s request that their child be raised a Fenerbahce fan when she married. Even one of my childhood friends in America who recently got married remembers one of the first things he asked his now wife on their first date: “You’re not a Yankees fan, are you?” As a Boston Red Sox fan he had to clear all the deal-breakers out of the way first. Sports are something that can make seemingly rational people become irrational regardless of where they live. Sure, they are more passionate in Europe and South America but even then ugly incidents are, for the most part, confined to the stadium. The threat of possible bodily harm is kind of something you accept as collateral damage when entering the gates for a football match. But it isn’t something that consumes a city.

 

Now back to Baltimore. The reason that I bring up Belgrade is that I came across an article written by Derrick Clifton about the Baltimore riots. According to his byline he is “a Staff Writer at Mic covering identity, culture and social justice […and] master’s candidate at the Medill School of Journalism.” He says, rightly, “Usually, if a riot involves black people, it’s connected to intense episodes of where systemic racism is undoubtedly at work.” But what he goes on to explain is troubling, in my mind, and loses the point of what he wants to say:

“But when a mob of mostly white people take to the streets, vandalizing cars, storefronts and street signs in the process it usually means someone either won or lost a game. As Mic’s Zak Cheney-Rice noted in January, these rioters are usually called ‘revelers,’ ‘celebrants’ and ‘fans.’ They’re not even called ‘rioters’ in many cases. They’re not derided as ‘criminals,’ ‘thugs,’ ‘pigs’ or even ‘violent.’ Those descriptors, as events in Baltimore Monday night reveals yet again, are only reserved for black people. They’re the ones who need to be quelled by militarized police forces. They’re the ones who need to be off the streets, immediately. They’re diminishing the validity of their cause. Yet somehow, reckless behavior over a sports team, not a systemic matter of life and death, is viewed as a costly nuisance.”

Unfortunately it is the issue of “race” in the United States that reduces what should be important social discussion to its lowest common denominator, with the implication that somehow someone is being wronged due to his or her skin color and that is what is to blame. The events cited by Mr. Clifton include “riots” in the aftermath of sporting events as diverse as the San Francisco Giants 2014 baseball World Series win, the Vancouver Canucks 2011 hockey Stanley Cup Finals loss, and the 2015 Ohio State Buckeye’s college football championship in 2015. I would say that the common factor in all of these instances of violence and destruction was sports and alcohol…resulting in a “costly nuisance”, if you will. None of these instances involved plans on Twitter or the targeting of police officers: The Baltimore Police Department/Criminal Intelligence Unit announced that it “received credible information that members of various gangs including the Black Guerilla Family, Bloods, and Crips [had] entered into a partnership to ‘take out’ law enforcement officers.” None of the aforementioned events involved the widespread looting of stores either. And certainly none of them involved pathetic attempts to link Israeli intelligence to a domestic disturbance in the United States of America. Therefore, to me, Mr. Clifton’s comparison between “white riots” and the events in Baltimore, in order to find a racist motive, is moot.

 

I think that if we are to find a parallel between the rioting in Baltimore and sports-induced rioting it is helpful to get beyond the issue of race and look at the systemic problems in world society. For that, we can slowly move from Baltimore to Belgrade. Another article from the American left ran the headline “Councilman schools Fox News reporter on how to cover Baltimore uprisings”. If we ignore for a moment the needlessly hyperbolic anti-Fox News language used in the headline and listen to councilman Nick Mosby’s words we may get closer to the truth:

“What it is is [the] young folks of this community showing decades old anger, frustration, for a system that’s failed them. I mean, this is bigger than Freddie Gray. This is about the socio-economics of poor, urban America. These young guys are frustrated, they’re upset and unfortunately, their [sic] displaying it in a very destructive manner. When folks are under-educated, unfortunately, they don’t have the same intellectual voice to explain it the way other people are doing it and that’s what we see through the violence today.”

It is true, the roots of the problems in Baltimore stem from poverty and a lack of opportunity for many. What is important to note, however, is that this lack of opportunity is not only confined to minorities. There are plenty of white Americans facing the same unemployment problems and the same struggles with poverty and rising costs of living. To lower everything to the simple level of racial inequality cheapens the debate and only provides excuses and an easy way out. It is similar to that old (and hugely incorrect) mantra with which the West viewed (again) Belgrade during the Bosnia crisis: “The Serbs and the Bosnian Muslims have been fighting since the beginning of time. They could never live together, so what can we do?”—“White American cops are racist so this is what happens”. When we make broad statements with little or no thought to back them up nothing is gained. The problems in Baltimore are not very different from the problems affecting many other metropolises the world over: There is a growing wage gap which is drawing more and more urban people—black, white, purple, and green—into a feeling of hopelessness that can also manifest itself in violence. That is why many have posted articles that “explain” why riots occur in order to justify the actions of some (its kind of a no-brainer, but you can make your own analyses by sifting through the leftist rhetoric). Now we come full circle to Belgrade.

 

The Wall Street Journal article cited earlier in this post was titled “Soccer Violence Escalates in Europe”. The reason, according to the article, is that fans have been “driven by Europe’s economic struggles and what’s seen as an accompanying rise in nationalism and racism”. It isn’t a shocking conclusion and the figures don’t lie, at least those cited in the article: “The U.K.-based group Kick It Out counted 71 discriminatory incidents in Britain this season compared with 43 at this point last year,” and “In Germany, officials reported 7,863 soccer-related offenses last season, up from 4,576 in 2005-06. Italy saw 1,515 last year, up from 1,161.” Meanwhile in Spain, “penalties for sports-related offenses jumped by 22% last season from the previous year”.

The article’s author Naftali Bendavid notes that in the years following the Balkan wars of the 1990s “Serbian paramilitaries recruited from fan groups for the Balkan wars, as soccer hooligans became warriors and vice versa”. Indeed, some of this may be true. An article detailing the Grobari group, Partizan Belgrade’s Ultras, explains that:

“A defiance of authority since the tormented 1990s has intoxicated political and social spheres and reared its ugly head in football too. Many ultras took part in the armed conflicts and carry their scars today, translating the tribal nature of the Yugoslav wars to their clubs and ultras groups.”

Certainly Serbia’s continued exclusion from mainstream European society (the European Union)—and ongoing economic stagnation—is sure to have an effect on its young, male, job seeking population (incidentally, the core demographic of most football supporters). It is normal. That said I am not here to make an inquest into any Ultra group or football supporters in general, since I am first and foremost a football fan. I’ll leave that to the media; it seems that they are the champions at demonizing groups. What I am here to say is that economic disparities are becoming more and more pronounced, whether in Baltimore or Belgrade or anywhere else. And to paint over those real economic problems with the label of “White vs. Black racism” and other ideological (or political) slogans really does nothing to solve human problems that are very real. People feel forgotten by the systems they live in, making less and less money, while gentrification pushes up rents in low income neighborhoods. This frustration then drives some to extremes that can become violent. That is the challenge for governments all over the world at the beginning of the 21st century: To win back the citizens they are losing every day as a result of a world society unable to produce stable and ongoing economic benefits for all citizens.