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The Subtext of a Turkish Footballer Responding To China’s Treatment of Turkic Uyghur Minority

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On June 29, 2015 little known Turkish footballer Alparslan Ozturk made the headlines for his political stance. The footballer, who left the Turkish Super League side Kasimpasaspor at the end of last season, had been linked to two Chinese clubs. According to his Facebook post (shown below), when he asked that ten percent of his yearly earnings be given to Uyghur Turks living in East Turkestan (an autonomous region in China’s Western province of Xinjiang) the Chinese clubs in question decided not to follow through with the transfer. Mr. Ozturk claims that he didn’t make this announcement for publicity or to attract interest from other clubs:

“Müslüman soydaşlarımızı, müslüman kardeşlerimizi canlı canlı soyan bir millette, ülkede benim nefes almam uygun değildir. Böyle düşündüm, böyle karar verdim. Her gün televizyonlarda ve gazetelerde görüyoruz. Oruç tuttuğu için Uygur Türkleri katlediliyor”

“It isn’t right for me to breath in a country, among a people, that steal from our Muslim brothers. I thought like this and made this decision. We see it every day on the television and in the newspapers. Uyghur Turks are being murdered because they [participate in the Ramadan] fast”.

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Images Courtesy Of: http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/spor/futbol/29409023.asp?scenario_id=ilgiliHaber&action=click&label=HaberDetay5&widget_id=6406183321960270

While Mr. Ozturk’s decision may of course be his own personal preference, it is hard to separate the footballer from the politics in this case. The Turkish government has followed an internationalist foreign policy based on Islam in order to increase its influence in Africa and Central Asia, and Mr. Ozturk is well aware that making such comments ingratiates him with fellow Muslims who are football fans. Indeed the Hurriyet news story cited above was shared on Facebook 1.9 billion times. In order to understand how this story grew we must take a look at Turkish reporting of recent events in eastern China.

 

CNN explains that China’s far Western Xinjiang province “was contested among Mongols and Turkic groups before coming under Chinese rule in the 18th century. It has grown more prized since, as the region is rich in oil and minerals.” Incoming migration of Han Chinese has made the native Turkic Uyghurs a minority and, recently, the officially Atheist government of communist China has put restrictions on Uyghurs practicing Islam. The issue came to a head on most recently on June 23, 2015. Radio Free Asia—based in the United States—reported that as many as 28 people were killed at a police checkpoint in southwestern Xinjiang’s Kashgar city. A car sped through the checkpoint and when police came out to chase the car it backed up, breaking the leg of one traffic policeman. Two men then came out of the car and stabbed two other traffic policeman to death. When backup police officers came to the scene three other people had arrived in a motorcycle and attacked the checkpoint with explosives, killing three other policeman, before police opened fire and killed fifteen alleged terrorists. In the end reports vary on the number of dead, ranging from 18 to 30. Yahoo news and the New York Times corroborated the Radio Free Asia report, with the Times noting the religious divide:

“Uighurs, an ethnic Turkic group that makes up more than 40 percent of Xinjiang’s 22 million people, have been struggling to maintain their identity there and practice their religion, Islam, amid increasing controls from Beijing. Some Uighurs want to break away from China and form an independent East Turkestan, and some of them engage in sporadic, deadly attacks against the authorities.”

Radio Free Asia, in a June 29, 2015 story, also noted that the attackers came from a religious family”.

Interestingly, in stark contrast to the Western reports of the incident, Turkish media has underlined the religious divide to a large degree. In Turkish Daily Vatan’s report of the incident they reported that Muslims were not being allowed to carry out the Ramadan fast, one of the five pillars of Islam, and that the restriction caused the violence. I have provided my own translation below Vatan’s article:

 

“Geçtiğimiz yıl Ramazan ayında Doğu Türkistanlı Müslümanlara orucu yasaklayan Çin, yasağına bu yıl da devam ediyor. Çin’in yasağa uymayan Uygurlara operasyon başlattığı ifade edilirken, şu ana kadar 18 Uygur Türk’ünün Çin polisi tarafından öldürüldüğü belirtildi.

Doğu Türkistan’daki baskıcı politikalarıyla gündeme gelen Çin, Müslümanlara namaz ve oruç da dahil İslam’a dair herşeyi yasakladı. Yasağa uymayan Müslümanlara operasyon düzenleyen Çin polisinin en az 18 kişiyi katlettiği belirtildi.

Reuters’ın Radio Free Asia’ya dayandırarak servis ettiği haberinde, Çin’in işgal altında tuttuğu Doğu Türkistan’ın Kaşgar şehrinde polisin en az 18 Uygur Türkünü katlettiği belirtildi. Çin polisi, Uygurlardan oluşan bir grubun polise bıçak ve patlayıcılarla polise saldırdığını idida etti ve en az üç polisin öldüğünü duyurdu. Yapılan açıklamada polisin saldırı düzenleyen Uygurlara karşılık vererek en az 15 kişiyi öldürdüğü belirtildi.”

“China, who forbade East Turkistan’s Muslims to fast last Ramadan, is continuing the restriction this year. While an operation was made against Uyghurs not adhering to the restriction, 18 Uyghur Turks have been killed by Chinese Police up to now.

China, who has been recognized for its restrictive policies in East Turkestan, has forbidden Muslims to have anything to do with Islam including prayers and fasting. Chinese police arranged an operation against Muslims not adhering to the prohibition and have murdered at least 18 people.

Reuters citing Radio Free Asia reported that police murdered at least 18 Uygur Turks in the city of Kashgar in Chinese occupied East Turkestan. Chinese police claimed that a group of Uyghurs attacked police with knives and explosives and reported that at least three police were killed. A statement explained that in responding to the attack arranged by Uyghurs at least fifteen people were killed by police.”

 

News outlets in Turkey continue to stoke the fires of Turkish nationalism by linking the situation in China to Islamic/Turkish brotherhood and Today’s Zaman, known to be close to Islamic cleric Fethullah Gulen, ran a story detailing academics and actors calling for an independent East Turkestan. The Sabah daily, which is close to the government, also ran a story reporting on a delegation from the leftist pro Kurdish Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP) visiting China at the invitation of the Chinese communist party. Along with a blood splattered image of the East Turkestan flag Sabah ran the headline “An HDP delegation is going to China despite the East Turkestan torture”. Such a headline discredits the HDP—who dealt a blow to the AKP by winning 13% of the vote during June’s elections—by playing into Turkish nationalist fears of its identity as a party advocating Kurdish separatism.

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Image Courtesy Of: http://www.sabah.com.tr/gundem/2015/06/29/dogu-turkistan-iskencesine-ragmen-hdp-heyeti-cine-gidiyor

Interestingly the leftist news site sol.org responded to the mainstream media reporting of events in East Turkestan by exposing the East Turkestan propaganda proliferating on social media sites in a June 29, 2015 story. Sol.org notes that many pictures posted on social media sites and news sites purportedly reporting violence inflicted on Uyghur Turks by the Chinese government are really old file photos from as far back as the 1980s. They even note that one story, reporting on a beer festival in Shandong, was reported in Turkey with the headline “They forced Muslims to drink alcohol”. Of course every news site has its own propaganda to push; sol.org also claims that the leaders of East Turkestan live in America and are close to Al-Qaeda, part of an American “plan” to destabilize China by using its restive Turkic Muslim minority.

The thing that should be kept in mind is that no news story is free from political bias, even seemingly innocent ones about a footballer choosing to not play in China. When such biases get dangerous, however, is when an ethno-nationalist and religious agenda starts being pushed by media outlets in order to galvanize support for the government in a “rally around the flag” manner.

 

The Varying Roles of Turkish Airlines: From Football to Foreign Policy

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A few weeks ago I boarded an early summer Turkish Airlines flight from Istanbul to Izmir and, like weary travellers all over the world, slumped into my seat. My first task was to explore the seat-back pocket in front of me. Not currently in need of any Davidoff or Hermes products I eschewed the in-flight shopping magazine and dug into the airline magazine Skylife instead. Alongside the usual articles about cities to visit (Mardin, Brugges, and Sochi, in this case) and interesting foods I stumbled upon one piece focusing on football. Curious, I dug in. It was an interview with Besiktas’s prolific Sengalese striker Demba Ba. The short interview had just twelve questions, mainly standard ones focusing on the player’s past exploits and favorite players—the (now) standard Messi or Ronaldo question, for instance. None of this was remotely surprising. What was surprising, however, was the focus on Islam and religiosity. A quarter of the interview—three questions—focused on the player’s religious views, two of which have no relation to football whatsoever. I have provided these three questions below for reference purposes courtesy of Skylife; the bold sections are the questions put forth by the interviewer:

Though you’re born in France, you’re deeply attached to the Senegalese culture and Islam. Did this play any part in your decision to come to Turkey?

I try to be a good Muslim; this definitely had an effect but it wasn’t the only reason. The fact that Turkey was mostly a Muslim country was very important and it enabled me to live easily.

Recently, you’ve made a donation for a mosque in Senegal, Koussanar, where your mother was born. What do you think about the mosques in Istanbul? Which one impresses you the most?

Istanbul is home to many beautiful mosques. My favorite is the Mimar Sinan Mosque in Ataşehir. It’s rather new but has a very impressive design. My favorite among the historical ones is the Blue Mosque.

What do you think about Islamophobia? It has been a fast-spreading phenomenon in recent years.

Islam is a 1,400-year-old religion and can’t be besmirched by foul mouthing. If there’s such a widespread feeling towards Islam, we should look ourselves in the mirror and try to find the reasons why. We have to try to promote Islam in a better way.

 

Obviously, these questions seemed out of place to me and stuck out due to the shear number of them. The interviewer goes from asking about penalty shots and how it felt to leave Chelsea to…discussing Islamophobia? It is a strange melding of sports and ideology. But, then again, not so strange given the fact that this is Turkish Airlines. In its quest to become a major global airline Turkish Airlines has paid great attention to the world’s game. They have become the official sponsors of, among others, FC Barcelona, Borussia Dortmund, and the UEFA Champions League. They are also official shirt sponsors of French club Olympique Marseille and in the past they also sponsored Manchester United FC.

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Turkish Airlines also profit from Marseille’s celebrations. Image Courtesy Of: http://www.sportbuzzbusiness.fr/turkish-airlines-om-2014-2015-sponsoring-dos.html

Turkish Airlines planes often sport livery advertising the clubs they sponsor:

during the departer to the UEFA Champions League Final in London at airport Dortmund on May 24, 2013 in Dortmund, Germany.

during the departer to the UEFA Champions League Final in London at airport Dortmund on May 24, 2013 in Dortmund, Germany.

Borussia Dortmund. Image Courtesy Of: http://edition.cnn.com/2013/08/19/business/airlines-football-aeroflot-manchester-united/

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Manchester United FC. Image Courtesy Of: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=798106&page=2

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FC Barcelona. Image Courtesy Of: http://www.airliners.de/turkish-airlines-will-in-die-bundesliga/20751

In any given issue of Skylife it is also easy to find a picture of either (or if you’re lucky, both) Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu or President Recep Tayyip Erdogan in the context of inaugurating new projects; in this case the new Ordu-Giresun Airport. The magazine’s online version of a similar story omitted their photos this month but a picture of the in-print version of the same article is provided below for comparison’s sake. In fact, Skylife sometimes reads like a piece of government propaganda—and this is the category that the aforementioned article falls under, at least for me. To explain we have to look deeper into what Turkish Airlines as a business entity means to Turkey.

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Online. Image Courtesy Of: http://www.skylife.com/en/2015-06/the-first-airport-on-land-fill-in-turkey-and-europe

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In Print. Author’s own Photo.

 

Two years ago Turkey analyst Soner Cagaptay of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy mentioned Turkish airlines in an article he wrote about the contradictions inherent in Turkey’s economic growth and simultaneous rising political conservatism. He said that Turkish Airlines is:

“[A] publicly owned company whose ascent exemplifies the new and economically rising Turkey. The airline flies to more than 200 destinations from its hub in Istanbul, up from about 75 in 2002. It twice has been voted Europe’s best airline….Today, [their flights] are full of Europeans flying to Istanbul for connections across Turkey and Eurasia. But even as Turkey’s supercharged economy propels the airline forward, parochial conservatism is pulling it in another direction. The company recently announced that it will ban alcohol from most of its domestic flights. If Turkish Airlines aspires to be a global brand, it needs to stop acting like the Muslim airline for a Muslim country.”

That was in March of 2013. Since then the alcohol ban has been enforced, but that isn’t the only prohibition. The Airline made headlines again two months after that in May of 2013 when it banned flight attendants from wearing red lipstick. This was after the company had already banned flight attendants from sporting dyed red hairstyles, bleached platinum blonde hairstyles, and silver make-up. Later, in December 2014, a Turkish Airlines flight attendant was fired for “sexy” photos and videos that surfaced of her that were taken while she was off the job. The president of the airline’s labor union said that it was “totally down to Turkish Airlines management’s desire to shape the company to fit its own political and ideological stance” since Turkey was becoming “more conservative and more religious”. It is these motives also led to an attempt to change the cabin crew’s outfits earlier in 2013 which, thankfully, never came to fruition (I say that as someone with a modicum of fashion sense, and many designers agree. The outfits in question are below).

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1974. Image Courtesy Of: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/25/world/europe/new-uniforms-for-turkish-airlines-create-uproar.html?_r=0

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In 2013 it was back to the….(Ottoman) Past? Images Courtesy Of: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/25/world/europe/new-uniforms-for-turkish-airlines-create-uproar.html?_r=0 AND http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/new-turkish-airlines-uniforms-raise-eyebrows.aspx?pageID=238&nID=40810&NewsCatID=341

 

It is clear that Turkish Airlines, despite being partially privatized, still receives massive amounts of government support—a third airport is being built in Istanbul just so that the national carrier can continue its unprecedented growth as one of the world’s top airlines. What separates Turkish Airlines from the other airlines on the list, however, is the work it does for the government in the shadows.

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Turkish Airline’s Unprecedented Growth from 2003-2013. Image Courtesy Of: http://www.economist.com/news/business/21649509-advance-emirates-etihad-and-qatar-latterly-joined-turkish-airlines-looks-set

 

Back in November of 2011 the victims of a Mogadishu suicide bombing were flown from the Somali capital to Ankara on a Turkish Airlines plane in order to receive treatment. It was part of the beginning of what the BBC termed an “unlikely love affair” between the two countries. For Turkey’s ruling AKP party it seemed to have grabbed the low hanging fruit; reaching out to an impoverished Muslim country forgotten by the west allowed Turkey to step into an unoccupied vacuum and gain influence in the horn of Africa—a strategic geopolitical location.

The move hasn’t made Somalia a top tourist destination yet, however, and many Somalis used the opening Turkey provided to travel to Europe on fake passports, something that Turkish officials were either unaware of or turned a blind eye to. After all, before Turkish Airlines, no major airlines flew to Somalia; they had a monopoly.

In May of 2014 the problems with Turkey’s vision of Muslim solidarity hit hard when a Turkish Airlines security official was gunned down in a drive-by shooting in Mogadishu. This followed a July 2013 attack by al-Qaeda linked al-Shabaab militants on the Turkish embassy in Mogadishu that left several special-forces police injured. Pro-government writers in Turkey claimed that it was Western powers backing al-Shabaab out of jealousy for Turkey’s new role in Somalia that led to the attack. In January of 2015 Turkish nationals were again targeted in Mogadishu days before President Recep Tayyip Erdogan was set to visit.

All the violence suggests that Turkey’s attempts to woo Somalia haven’t been accepted by all parts of Somalian society, despite the best of support from Turkey’s national airline. Still, four years on, this partnership is continuing in the name of “muslim solidarity”. Jason Mosely, from the think tank Chatham House, explains that “Turkey’s efforts in Somalia are much different than the Western approach in the country. It has much more legitimacy and popularity…Turkey has the support of the grassroots of Somalia. They have appreciation because Turkish involvement is only business, no counter-terrorism or anything else.”

Meanwhile just across the horn of Africa, in the sands of another impoverished and country forgotten by the West, Turkish Airlines is serving their country. The place this time? Yemen. On February 10 2013 Yemen and Turkey mutually lifted the entry visa requirement for their citizens travelling between the two countries. With the conflict in Syria raging, it was certainly interesting timing. Before that, in October of 2012, Turkish Airlines started flying four flights a week direct from Istanbul to the cities of Aden and Sana’a—hardly high volume international tourists destinations. Even without Business Insider explicitly stating the connection, it wasn’t hard to connect the dots. It seems that Turkey’s national flag carrier was transporting young Jihadis from Yemen to Turkey, where they made the trip overland to fight in Syria against the Assad regime that Turkey had—and still is—taking a hard line against. These flights were stopped in April 2015 following unrest in Yemen, but it all amounts to too little too late. The damage has already been done.

Turkey’s main geopolitical rival in the region, Iran, also focused on Turkish Airlines and through the Fars News Agency published stories claiming that weapons were being delivered to Yemen under the guise of humanitarian aid and that Taliban fighters were being transported from Pakistan to Turkey’s border with Syria. Although Fars News is known for its sensationalism, these stories did not come out of a vacuum. In February of 2015 some Arab commentators also noted that the reverse has started happening, with Turkey transporting Sunni fighters from Syria to Yemen in order to fight Iranian-backed Shiites:

“Media in Yemen recently reported that Turkey is using this process to repeat the scenario that played out in Syria, when it helped in bringing extremist Sunnis to fight Bashar al-Assad. Now Ankara is trying to do so under the pretext of trade and tourism exchanges in Yemen. Abdullah al-Shami, a senior politician in Yemen, said that Turkey is trying to take advantage of the current political vacuum in southern Yemen to help terrorist organizations operating in its territory.”

The veracity of such claims is, of course, debatable. In the world of Middle Eastern politics events are rarely clear, and the competing interests of those involved mean that reporting is often biased. What is clear—at least for me—is that Turkish Airlines is actively serving the interests of the Turkish government above and beyond its role as a partially privately owned business. Even in an airline magazine’s harmless interview with a football player the subtext is clear: The image of Turkey that is to be presented to the outside world is that of a conservative Muslim country that also likes its football. Unfortunately for the Turkish Airlines security official that lost his life in Somalia al-Shabaab’s terrorists did not accept that image…